September 2000 Issue
10, Monkeys 0!
by Calvin Miller
It's September and back-to-school
month. There is a general widespread agreement that public schools
are not necessarily the best place to be if you want to improve
your mind. Since 1925, the public schools have been relatively
free to teach evolution. The problem is they don't seem to be
teaching it or anything else very well. Increasingly, since 1925,
homeschoolers and private schools of all sorts have taken up the
slack left in education not provided by public systems.
In 1925, a group of Tennessee men, sipping cokes in Robinson's
Drug Store in Dayton, Tennessee, agreed that things had gotten
pretty dull (and were continuing so) in Dayton. On U.S. Highway
27, thirty miles north of Chattanooga, all things religious were
generally slow. But the word was out that a certain high school
teacher, John Scopes, had been using a book that taught the theory
of evolution in the classroom. It seemed to the coke-sippers at
Robinson's drug that this was a fairly reasonable place to begin
to look for something to brighten the uneventful days.
Fundamentalists in many states had pushed through laws forbidding
the teaching of evolution in public schools and Tennessee was
one of those states. So John Scopes was criminally indicted for
teaching evolution, and the coke-sippers managed to widen the
argument by asking William Jennings Bryan to prosecute Scopes
for his classroom crimes.
Those on the opposite side of the argument hired Clarence Darrow
to defend Scopes. Both lawyers were committed to their very different
causes, and the argument erupted into the hottest courtroom scene
the world had ever known. The 100-degee weather made the trial
seem as if it were being carried on in a bake oven. At one point,
the judge even ordered the people all outside to conduct the hearing
out where it was somewhat cooler - on the wide, green, shady courthouse
lawn. Those who were attending the trial fanned themselves with
"funeral home fans" and generally agreed with Bryan.
But the lawn trial was hard to control since the crowd outside
the courthouse was so large that it erupted in catcalls and megaphone
slurs. So the judge ordered them all back inside again.
The entire nation gradually became involved. The proceedings
were broadcast on radio coast-to-coast, and the whole nation zeroed
in on the highly divisive and opinionated scene.
After eleven days, it appeared that Bryan and the fundamentalists
won, for Scopes was found guilty and fined $100 for breaking Tennessee
law. But it was a Pyrrhic victory. From that point on, American
public education became increasingly closed to all forms of creationism.
Then God Himself became increasingly unwelcome. Finally, you could
end up in court for even mentioning God in school. It looked like
the monkeys were the big winners in Dayton!
So why do I give monkeys such a low score and Christians such
a high one in the title of this column? Because the Scopes trial
helped create the matrix for Christian education in the rest of
the American century. As God was increasingly unwelcome in the
school systems, a counter insurgency was born insisting that God
and the ABCs have a natural affinity for many. People just learn
better when their view of learning finds no conflict in their
worship of God. Mind and heart function better when they are friends.
So the proliferation of private universities, most of which were
for Christian education, unbounded. While a few of them were founded
to teach a narrow creationism, the overwhelming majority were
founded to combat the modernist secularism that came to permeate
American universities in the second half of the 20th century.
Were they successful? Judge for yourself. By the end of the
20th century, only 19 percent of America's graduates were from
private universities, yet they furnished 58 percent of America's
leadership. Seventy-five years after the Scopes trial the enrollment
of private academies, high schools, colleges, and universities
were at standing room only. Public education was mired down in
the slough of disrespect and those who couldn't register good
SAT scores. Internet surfers had become the intellects of a dumbed-down
Johnny not only couldn't read, he started taking his guns to
Of course, I don't blame all of this on John Scopes but, in
the interim years since, private education could at least see
that the best way to produce a well-educated nation is to provide
a matrix where God remains a factor in learning.
Calvin Miller is professor of preaching
and pastoral ministry at Beeson Divinity School in Birmingham,
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